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Bugis

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For the street in Singapore, see Bugis Street.

Bugis



Abu Bakar of Johor B.J. Habibie

Najib Tun Razak • Jusuf Kalla • Ziana Zain

Total population

6.0 million (2000 census)

Regions with significant populations

Indonesia 5,157,000 [1]

Sulawesi

South Sulawesi 3,400,000

South East Sulawesi 372 289

Central Sulawesi 314 008

West Sulawesi 103 207

Kalimantan

East Kalimantan 522 570

South Kalimantan 366 495

West Kalimantan 135 490

Sumatera

Riau 120 508

Jambi 64 393

Bangka-Belitung Islands 33 200

Riau Islands 26 400

Java

Jakarta 50 300

Malaysia 728,465

Singapore 15 374



Languages

Bugis, Indonesian, Malay



Religion

Predomatinely Sunni muslim, some animism



The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest island. Although many Bugis live in the large port cities of Makassar and Parepare, the majority are farmers who grow wet rice on the lowland plains to the north and west of the town of Maros. The name Bugis is an exonym which represents an older form of the name; (To) Ugi is the endonym.



The Bugis speak a distinct regional language in addition to Indonesian, called Basa Ugi, Bugis or Buginese. In reality, there are a several dialects, some of which are sufficiently different from others to be considered separate languages. Bugis belongs to the South Sulawesi language group; other members include Makasar, Toraja, Mandar and Enrekang, each being a series of dialects.[2]



The Bugis are known in their navigation skills and economic influence in the Malay Archipelago. The center for the Bugis's economic and culture is in Ujung Pandang or Makassar. They are also adherents of Islam.[3]



As the most numerous group in the region (more than 5 million), they have had considerable influence on their neighbors.



Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Origins

1.2 Term and etymology

1.3 Homeland

1.4 In Malay peninsular and Sumatra

1.5 In Northern Australia

2 Present lifestyle

3 Religion

4 Sea exploration

5 See also

6 References

7 External links





[edit] History

[edit] Origins

The Bugis are the descendant of the Deutero-Malays which had arrived to South-East Asia in 1500BC. They arrived in South East Asia after the first wave of the migration by the Proto-Malays.[citation needed]





South Sulawesi province in Indonesia, home of the Bugis people.[edit] Term and etymology

The name Bugis was based from the word To Ugi or the Bugis People.[4] It refers to the followers of the La Sattumpugi; the first Bugis king from the ancient Cina Kingdom which covers present day Wajo Regency in South Sulawesi.[5]



[edit] Homeland

Tana Ugi is known as the heartland and the birthplace of the culture and tradition of the Bugis. The territory composing the present-day South Sulawesi. The name Tana Ugi loosely defined as "The Bugis Land".[6]



The homeland of the Bugis is the area around Lake Tempe and Lake Sidenreng in the Walennae Depression in the southwest peninsula. It was here that the ancestors of the present-day Bugis settled, probably in the mid- to late second millennium BC. The area is rich in fish and wildlife and the annual fluctuation of Lake Tempe (a reservoir lake for the Bila and Walennae rivers) allows speculative planting of wet rice, while the hills can be farmed by swidden or shifting cultivation, wet rice, gathering and hunting. Around AD 1200 the availability of prestigious imported goods including Chinese and Southeast Asian ceramics and Gujerati print-block textiles, coupled with newly discovered sources of iron ore in Luwu stimulated an agrarian revolution which expanded from the great lakes region into the lowland plains to the east, south and west of the Walennae depression. This led over the next 400 years to the development of the major kingdoms of South Sulawesi, and the social transformation of chiefly societies into hierarchical proto-states.[7]



Unlike other parts of early Southeast Asia which had been largely Indianised, the Bugis didn't received much influence from India. The only significant Indian influence towards the bugis is the Lontara script which is largely based on the Bramic scriptst from India. The minimal influence from India during that period compare to the other early kingdoms in Java and Sumatra is believed due to the early Bugis are against assimilation of foreign cultures.[8]



[edit] In Malay peninsular and Sumatra

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010)



The conclusion in 1669 of a protracted civil war led to a diaspora of Bugis and their entry into the politics of peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. The Bugis played an important role in defeating Jambi and had a huge influence in Sultanate of Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Bugis and the Minangkabau realized how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor. Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda (Yam Tuan Muda), or Bugis underking.



[edit] In Northern Australia

Long before European colonialists extended their influence into these waters, the Makasar, the Bajau, and the Bugis built elegant, ocean-going schooners in which they plied the trade routes. Intrepid and doughty, they travelled as far east as the Aru Islands, off New Guinea, where they traded in the skins of birds of paradise and medicinal masoya bark, and to northern Australia, where they exchanged shells, birds'-nests and mother-of-pearl for knives and salt with Aboriginal tribes. The products of the forest and sea that they brought back were avidly sought after in the markets and entrepots of Asia, where the Bugis bartered for opium, silk, cotton, firearms and gunpowder. [citation needed]



The Bugis sailors left their mark and culture on an area of the northern Australian coast which stretches over two thousand kilometers from the Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Throughout these parts of northern Australia, there is much evidence of a significant Bugis presence. There are the remains of Bugis buildings on islands, Bugis words have become part of the Aboriginal languages and Bugis men and their craft feature in the indigenous art of the people of Arnhem Land.[citation needed] Each year, the Bugis sailors would sail down on the northwestern monsoon in their wooden pinisi. They would stay in Australian waters for several months to trade and take trepang (or dried sea cucumber) before returning to Makassar on the dry season off shore winds. These trading voyages continued until 1907.[citation needed]



As Thomas Forrest wrote in Voyage from Calcutta, "The Bugis are a high-spirited people: they will not bear ill-usage...They are fond of adventures, emigration, and capable of undertaking the most dangerous enterprises."



[edit] Present lifestyle

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010)



Most present-day Bugis now earn their living as rice farmers, traders or fishermen. Women help with the agricultural cycle and work in the homes. Some women still weave the silk sarongs worn on festive occasions by men and women.



Most Bugis live in stilted houses, sometimes three meters (9 ft) or more off the ground, with plank walls and floors. During growing seasons some family members may reside in little huts dispersed among the fields.



Many of the marriages are still arranged by parents and ideally take place between cousins. A newlywed couple often lives with the wife's family for the first few years of their marriage. Divorce is a fairly common occurrence, particularly when the married couple are still in their teens.



The Bugis' diet consists mainly of rice, maize, fish, chicken, vegetables, fruit and coffee. On festive occasions, goat is served as a special dish. Visual and performing arts, such as dance and recitations of epic poetry have largely been replaced by modern entertainments such as karaoke.



The Bugis culture also recognizes five separate genders that are necessary to keep the world in balance and harmony. These include makkunrai (feminine woman), calabai (feminine man), calalai (masculine female), oroané (masculine man), and bissu (embodying both male and female energies, revered as a shaman).



[edit] Religion

Prior the Islamic conversion of the Bugis, the Bugis are largely practiced animism. The Bissu (or sharman) poses great power in the religious affairs of the Bugis. Historical evidence suggested that the pre-islamic Bugis practiced the act of cremation towards the deceased, especially to the nobleman. The crematorium is called Patunuang and the ashes of the deceased are kept in an urn. However, the act of cremation is limited in certain places, based on the Portuguese sources, the Makassarese buried the dead while the Torajans keep their deceased in the caves.



While the earlier pre-islamic Bugis rulers were not being cremated nor buried, as the soul are believed to be vanished and returned to the heavens, the corpse will be left leaning under a tree until the body decayed. While the body of dead infant will be left submerged under a river or the sea.



In the early 1600s, the Minangkabau ulema, Dato Ri Bandang, Dato Ri Tiro, and Dato Ri Patimang spread Islam in South Sulawesi.[9] The Bugis converted from indigenous animistic practices and beliefs to Islam. A few west coast rulers converted to Christianity in the mid-sixteenth century, but failure by the Portuguese at Malacca to provide priests meant that this did not last. By 1611, all the Makasar and Bugis kingdoms had converted to Islam, though pockets of animists among the Bugis To Lotang at Amparita and the Makasar Konja in Bulukumba persist to this day. Practices originating in the pre-Islamic period also survive, such as ancestor veneration and spirit possession, though these practices are less inclined to be performed by the current generation, as most are now educated in Islam.



[edit] Sea exploration

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010)



Respected as traders and sailors, and feared occasionally as adventurers and pirates, the seafarers of southern Sulawesi looked outwards, seeking their fortunes throughout the Indonesian archipelago. While trade was the seafarers' main goal, the Makasar, Bajau, and Bugis often set up permanent settlements, either through conquest or diplomacy, and marrying into local societies. However, their reputation as seafarers dates to after 1670; most Bugis were, and are, rice farmers..



[edit] See also

Indonesia portal

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bugis.

Bugis of Sabah

Bugis in Singapore

Demographics of Indonesia

[edit] References

^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. ISBN 9812302123.

^ Mills, R.F. 1975. Proto South Sulawesi and Proto Austronesian phonology. Ph. D thesis, University of Michigan.

^ Pelras, Christian . The Peoples of South-East Asia and The Pacific: The Bugis. 1st ed. Blackwell Publisher, 1996. Print. .

^ Pelras, Christian . The Peoples of South-East Asia and The Pacific: The Bugis. 1st ed. Blackwell Publisher, 1996. Print. .

^ Pelras, Christian . The Peoples of South-East Asia and The Pacific: The Bugis. 1st ed. Blackwell Publisher, 1996. Print. .

^ Pelras, Christian . The Peoples of South-East Asia and The Pacific: The Bugis. 1st ed. Blackwell Publisher, 1996. Print. .

^ Caldwell, I. 1995. 'Power, state and society among the pre-Islamic Bugis.' Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 151(3): 394-421; Bulbeck, D. and I. Caldwell 2000. Land of iron; The historical archaeology of Luwu and the Cenrana valley. Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull.

^ Pelras, Christian . The Peoples of South-East Asia and The Pacific: The Bugis. 1st ed. Blackwell Publisher, 1996. Print. .

^ Naim, Mochtar. Merantau.

[edit] External links

The history of Bugis and Makassarese

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bugis"

Categories: Bugis people
Ethnic groups in Malaysia
Ethnic groups in Indonesia
Ethnic groups in Singapore
Muslim communities

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